Odds are, somebody in your life works or has worked for a multi-level marking company, called MLM companies for short. If you’ve ever had a friend on social media invite you to join their sales team or attend an online shopping party, it probably had connections to an MLM company. Some people think of MLM companies as some opportunistic scam, but that actually couldn’t be further from the truth. Learning a little bit about how these companies can help you understand why they provide a wealth of opportunity for income and professional growth. In fact, you’re probably very familiar with many of the best MLM companies in the business without even knowing it.
Simply You touts itself as a fun, fashionable, affordable jewelry company. With a $199 starter kit, you’ll receive goodies that value over $1,000, including 20 pieces of jewelry, your own website, online retailing, e-newsletters for customers, annual national convention opportunities and ongoing training programs. You can also get an additional supplement kit with 9 pieces of jewelry for $99. 

NuSkin is another America-based multi-level marketing company based in Provo, UT, founded in 1984. It sells dietary supplements and personal care products. The company employs close to 1 million independent distributors and has over 50 international markets. However, the company was in trouble a few backs after it overstated earned incomes. Despite lots of scrutinies, the company still remains reputable.

Hello I'm working with the company called Javita Coffee Company. I'm with the company for just 3 weeks. The industry is can be Health and wellness, can be coffee, can be in weight loss industry. My favorite product is everything because the coffee - energy and mind, depression, stress, anxiety, memory, epilepsy, Alzheimer. The coffee burn and control, can burn fats fast, metabolism, fats convert to energy. Lean and green tea, deabetes, high blood sugar, high blood pressure, and more. The cleansing tea it will cleanse your body! The reason I choose this company is about their healthy products and of course, a lot of people are drinking coffee, 90% of the people in the united state drinking coffee. I like their compensation plan too, it's really good and equal. No, I just market one company, just Javita Coffee Company...

I’m with LifeVantage and TeaLife. Both great companies to work with. LV we have 6 ways of being paid..commissions plus residual income on something no one else has. Big pharmacy is trying to synthetically create what we have in drug form that will have side effects. But we are natural. TeaLife is organic loose teas that are so yummy! 30% commissions on teas and 20% tea accessories. I order from both these companies as well because I believe in them 100%. If anyone has any questions please email me: dawnmahaney1@outlook.com


If you love luxuriously soft bedding and appreciate organic materials, SOL Organics Bedding may be the perfect fit for you! Earn up to 14% commissions on sales you refer using your affiliate link. You can earn commissions by referring sales in person or online. Host a party with SOL Organics and showcase their luxurious bedding. Earn commissions on all sales you generate using your affiliate link!
You’ll also find the work much easier if you have developed a range of media-related skills and understand how to navigate the MLM world. At Be On Air Media Schools, we have a variety of programs that can prepare you for MLM success. Give any of the Ohio, Colorado, Illinois and Miami Media Schools a look. Once you decide if it is the path you want to take, you can apply online.
Faith Jewelry is a direct sales company that sells beautiful jewelry that is handmade by international refugees who fled to the United States. Jewelry is made from the finest materials around the world, including Swarovski crystals and Czech glass beads. For $195 you receive $505 worth of jewelry that you can pick yourself, and you make 50% commission off of sales. You also receive sales aids and coaching. Even better, you have a great story to share with your clients.
This was the most useless, uninformative, article I have wasted my time with. I'm scratching my head right now, as I thought I was clicking on an article that someone actually did research of "the top 20 best direct sales company's", not : "um, I know nothing about direct sales, nor did any research but I will name 20 companies, I may or may not know anything about".... numbering them, then writing paragraphs of blah, blah, did not even bother googling company for facts, but you could, as I'm not that smart. I really hope you don't get paid for crap like this and if you do .... please share that secret. I would love to write articles (I would even do legit research and be knowledgeable) and get paid doing so. ** 100% serious if you are making $$ off this article please share your secret, as this is a very disappointing, misleading article full of paragraphs of crap nonsense from you. I initially clicked as I was an independent consultant for Partylite (surprised not mentioned however knock off cheap quality scentsy was) and looking if PL was still the best option to make $ PT and possibly get information on 20 companies that "are the best" with info like start up costs, commission %, pyramid formed companies vs non, web site maintenance costs, consumer interest, background info more specific than they have been around since the 1800s?!? SMH... what a waste of time to read this. If I Google PL it gives me that info and you misled me to think you did the research for me. So please let me know how I can make $ after I do it by writing a better article then this. Good luck!
Usborne Books is an America-based direct sales company established in 1989 and is an extension of Usborne Educational Development/Publishing Corporation founded in 1973 by Peter Usborne. Usborne Books has been recognized a couple of times as one of the best small companies in America. Its mission is to provide economic opportunity while nurturing family values and to deliver educational excellence. The company generates about $9.6 million in revenues every year.
I have tried Arbonne products. They're not life-changing, though I'll admit they're not only beautifully packaged, but they somehow feel extra luxurious in comparison to anything at the drug store. Because of the price, I wouldn't recommend trying to sell to your fellow mommy friends who are probably already feeling guilt about the air-freshener plug-in they bought at Wal-Mart. If you decide to sell Arbonne, branch out to friends and family with older children or even try throwing parties with the high school crowd where everyone gets to experience a facial and a foot soak. That's how you really sell this stuff.
Martket America/Shop.com is a great home based business. We are independent distributors who have many product lines to select to represent. If someone is interested in cosmetics we have the Motives line and Motives by LaLa. We have a Health and Wellness line. There are over 3500 exclusive line products to build a business. We also have a shopping portal at Shop.com where people can sign up as a preferred customer for free and earn cashback shopping online at the stores they already shop at including the major anchor store chains. There are over 3000 partner stores on the portal. Low start up costs. We are celebratin out 20th anniversary this weekend and entering the next phase as leaders in the social shopping revolution!!!
It is sometimes in the best interest of a seller to avoid revealing the downsides of an MLM Program so as to build their down line faster. Take the time to read reviews published by other sellers or to ask them questions via social media or on message boards but remember that MLM sellers might not be entirely honest with you if they want to recruit you in their down line and boost their revenues.

I’ve also learned to lead in Mary Kay and become much more empowered as a woman. I’ve got a business I can do from anywhere, and one I’m proud to share with my friends and family. I’ve learned to help other women start their own businesses and share tools and tricks that have helped me have success. My unit grows as a team and works toward becoming a successful group of Mary Kay consultants. The Mary Kay products are known and loved by many so it’s fun to share all the new beauty and skincare lines as well as the cherished standbys that customers love.
Faith Jewelry is a direct sales company that sells beautiful jewelry that is handmade by international refugees who fled to the United States. Jewelry is made from the finest materials around the world, including Swarovski crystals and Czech glass beads. For $195 you receive $505 worth of jewelry that you can pick yourself, and you make 50% commission off of sales. You also receive sales aids and coaching. Even better, you have a great story to share with your clients.
I don’t care where doTERRA in ranked. The oils are good, but the company SUCKS. It is all built on big bloggers. Don’t have a big blog – you’re going to make pennies while others demand you make a minimum $100 a month order. The company itself has great customer service, but try to reach compliance or tell them that your uplines are making fake accounts or ordering off multiple people in the downline just to ensure they make bonuses and NO ONE listens. It’s supposedly geared to help the underdog succeed – this is a gimmick.

Because of the popularity of the product though, it looks like this is a pretty time and energy consuming direct-sales job. Consultants seem to do their best work at home-parties. However, there are consumers who seek this product out so hosting virtual parties and keeping an online presence would probably benefit a seller too. It seems that the key to success with Pampered Chef products starts with personality, specifically an outgoing and bubbly one.
You are right in that most MLM have monthly dues and have high entry fees to be distributors or consultants. You are also right in that most MLM companies focus on recruitment and not product sales. I’ve been working with Arbonne now for quite a while and none of those comments apply to this company, which is why I believe they have survived and are only growing at this point, despite some people’s opinion that they will soon be relics like Mary Kay. To become a consultant is a mere $75 dollars, the kit is involved with all free samples and material. Product loading is prohibited. Each event we host regularly ends with most if not all attendees becoming a preferred client for $20 joining fee for the first year and a $15 renewal every year with no monthly expectation and a guaranteed minimum of 20% off of all stock at all times and 40% off of all packages at all times. Not only that consultants can will their business down 6 generations, and the Mercedes incentive is for a purchase, not a lease. We do look to grow our network, but we emphasize this takes hard work and is not a get rich quick scheme. While you hit the nail on the head with most MLM businesses, there are MLM businesses like Arbonne who are a cut above the rest and who are in the habit of not putting pressure on anyone attending to either purchase or join as a consultant. We only want the best in our network and we have thousands of examples of very successful men and woman to show for it. Great article!!!
This company isn't cheap to join: the least expensive kit costs a whopping $499 and goes up to $1000.00 from there. Each starter kit contains everything you need to start your business plus products to familiarize yourself with the line and share with friends and family as you build up your clientele. The compensation plan isn't too simple either and you'll want to fully look it over before committing to the company, but if you're ready to hustle your butt and put your all into marketing Nerium's superior products then there's great potential to earn a steady and comfortable income.
This company also offers, among the majority on this list, one of the greatest opportunities for big money. Glassdoor reviewers give it high marks and those I know who sell the product really seem to enjoy doing so. But success with Rodan and Fields absolutely hinges on your ability to invest time, enthusiasm, and of course, money into the product. Social networking is a must. As I've said with a few of the other companies on this list, I also personally see a locale aspect to success in selling this product. I live in a place where most people earn a low-medium income and I know this stuff would be a hard sell--not because it doesn't work, but because most people around here wouldn't be able or willing to spend that much money on skin care. If you're in a predominantly wealthy area and network with people who really care about appearance and skin care (say, in a big city) though, this is a company worth looking into.

MLM has stretched its sticky fingers out into just about every product market out there, so it’s kinda hard to do something new nowadays. But Jamberry Nails did it. Their adhesive, custom nail designs BLEW UP when they hit the direct sales floor. They built up an army of over 100,000 consultants in the time it takes most people to get a mediocre pay raise at their 9-5.
Awesome benefits to Distributrs like monthly gifts, travel and vacation incentives. I am bold to say that Swissgarde is the best MLM business in Nigeria. A lot of pyramid schemes come into this country and promise get rich quick compensation plans. No wonder they fizzle out in a short period of time after swindling people of their hard-earned money. Swissgarde has been here for over 16 years, with effective herbal products for health and beauty. The monthly pay out is so transparent that you can easily calculate your take home even before it arrives. Distributors get lots of incentives even while making money for themselves. It's an awesome opportunity for anyone who loves network marketing. You can contact me for more information.
Just about everyone loves a little extra sprinkle of goodness, a tasty touch that completes a dish. For us, it's all about the nibs. We love them on top of smoothies to add that extra crunch. What about you - how do you get your nibs on? 😂😘😜 . . #thecocoaexchange #madewithcocoa #chocolate #cacao #cocoa #chocolatelovers #recipe #homemade #nibs #showoffyournibs #smoothie #huffposttaste #buzzfeast #todayfood #bhgfood #foodandwine #forkyeah #buzzfeast #feedfeed #f52grams #lefooding #delish #foodie #foodwinewomen #foodgawker #buzzfeedfood #peoplefood #pbsfood #yahoofood
They’re sliding, though. Revenue is falling in North America and their sales force is shrinking. Revenue slid 19% in 2013 and 7% in Mexico. Skip ahead to July 2015 and revenue is still spiraling downward, with a 17% drop (5). Analysts blame Avon’s failure to maintain a strong identity for its products as well as the strong dollar. Lesson: Always re-create yourself.

I joined in the mid-90’s under a Dr that paid my way. We were somewhere in Paul Orberson’s dowline, below an AR kid making $80K+/month. I didn’t actually sign anyone as a rep, and just enjoyed doing the pitch to the crowd in the hotels, restaurants, and eventually auditoriums. I got paid by the Dr to tell the “long distance” story, and he went all the way to there top tier in under a year.

We've just celebrated our Four Year Anniversary this month and are already getting major recognition from Vogue, NY Times, and have partnered with Target and J.Crew! Our other mission is transparency--both in our products-- in our mission to get safer products in the hands of everyone--and in our sales model. Every single cost and detail is laid out on the website!
A good MLM will have more than a few products to sell. They will have more than market sector covered (not just nutritional supplements, water filters or essential oils). They will also have other major retailers that they market for. The money those major corporations spend on the annual marketing, will be paid out to the MLM and their distributors for their sales & marketing efforts and results. That is where those companies will get

As a single mom, I needed to bring in extra money on top of my salary, and I decided to take a look at direct sales companies to make money. It can be tough work, but the 7 companies I’ve listed below provide awesome products, are great to their consultants and designers, and provide lots of resources to help you be successful. The commission I’ve earned from selling Scentsy, Thirty-One Gifts, and recently Origami Owl has helped me through some very tight times. As always, read the requirements of the consultant for each of these companies before making a decision. Do you need some extra cash? Take a look at these direct sales companies to make money and supplement your income!


The Smart Living Company sells furniture, decor, lighting, kitchen, bath and bed, and outdoor items, as well as toys and fashion products. To get started, choose a monthly membership; the premier membership is $5.95 a month with a one-time startup fee of $19.95. The enterprise membership is $9.95 a month with a one-time startup fee of $39.99. The Smart Living Company has an A+ rating with the Better Business Bureau.

I’m with LifeVantage and TeaLife. Both great companies to work with. LV we have 6 ways of being paid..commissions plus residual income on something no one else has. Big pharmacy is trying to synthetically create what we have in drug form that will have side effects. But we are natural. TeaLife is organic loose teas that are so yummy! 30% commissions on teas and 20% tea accessories. I order from both these companies as well because I believe in them 100%. If anyone has any questions please email me: dawnmahaney1@outlook.com

i found a new and upcoming jewelry sales from home! FREE start-up!!! i almost fainted. lol anyhow, you get your own website to design {easy to navigate} you get to choose from hundreds of pieces to sale on your site… you get 216 as of now but that is soon changing to more. lots of extras! its really too much to list. you get a commission on each item you sale. you dont have to handle any orders or shipping, its all done for you. really simple. checks are mailed the 15th of each month. no paypal required. just be sure once you start to attend the webinar. it will answer lots of questions. i have been doing this a few months now and i love it. i home school my kids so its perfect for me… and again… its FREE!! haha really. i havent spent a dime. :0)
Okay, we have a return to network marketing roots (can you remember the days of Tupperware parties…no? Well I’m not sorry to tell you there’s a reason for that).  Products for your kitchen, cooking demos, and an abundance of mommy bloggers.  Well homemakers are still the key demographic for this MLM, because they are looking for flexibility.  It’s not surprising to anyone that this company has done so well, but what is notable is that even Warren Buffet saw this company and decided he wanted a piece of the pie.

What I love most about Mary & Martha is that we have a ministry in the marketplace. I have built some beautiful friendships in my community and with fellow M&M consultants. Our products are beautiful and inspiring. My goal at each of my events is to BLESS those with me. B – begin in prayer, L – listen to the Holy spirit, E eat together, S serve, S share my story.
First, it's $99 to get started. That includes everything you need to get your business up and running, including catolog and products to try yourself or sell. In order to stay an active consultant, you must be active ($200 in sales) one month in a revolving 3 month period (ex: if you were active in July, you would have to have another active month by the end of October at least). And after your first 3 months, it's $15 a month to keep your website up.

I am very surprised not to see Younique on here for beauty products. They have their number one seller the 3D fiber lash mascara which is SO awesome!! I love it so much and their products are all natural. And all of the ladies are so sweet. I am so glad that I joined this company when I did. If you are interest in know more please go to my website youniqueproducts.com/kayladoffin
Posted in Advocare, Best Places To Work, Features, Isagenix, It Works!, Jeunesse Global, LifeVantage, Nu Skin, Plexus, Pure Romance, Scentsy, Team National, USANA Health Sciences, Xyngular, ZURVITA and tagged AdvoCare, Best Places to Work, Best Places to Work in Direct Selling, Direct Selling, DSN, Isagenix, It Works, Jeunesse, LifeVantage, MLM, Multi-Level Marketing, Nu Skin, Plexus, Plexus Worldwide, Pure Romance, Quantum, Quantum Workplace, Scentsy, Team National, USANA, Xyngular, Zurvita
Umm...ever heard of Amway? No direct sales / mlm list is complete without it. Founded in 1959, they are (and by a significant margin I might add) the largest global direct sales company in the world...#1. With over 450 exclusive products, 750+ patents and counting, best selling vitamin and nutrition line, top 5 skincare and makeup line, plus the legacy home products...come on now.
Boutique Owners, (that is what we call our consultants) can join FREE through our Work Hard Play Hard program where we match dollar for dollar in jewelry with their Grand opening sales. If someone would like to sell online only, they can join our Fashion Never Sleeps option for $14,95 a month and in minutes will have an online store filled with hundreds of gorgeous products.
My advice to someone looking into DS is to find something that you actually love and know that you could share with other people, not sell it to them, but share with them why you love it. I do fairs and events and I share with people how amazing these little hair clips are. I get excited about them and it shows. 90% of the women who try them on, end up buying them because they love them. So find something you LOVE and not something just to sell.

A big hello to everyone! I just launched a home based biz last month that had tremendous success my first month!! It was founded in 2005, but is mostly based on the east coast and just now moving west. When I came upon the website I was mesmerized that women could custom design their own handbags. To think that they could walk away from a party with a custom item to their taste and be proud of it was really appealing to me. In addition, all the handbags are made in the USA one purse at a time so it supports our economy. In my first month I was #3 in personal sales in the company and two women joined me. I believe that’s a true testimony to this ground floor opportunity and that women love customizing handbags. Please visit my website madisonhandbags.net/janagates/ I would love to answer any questions for you and help you in being the first to launch your market area as well. : )
I totally agree, Mary. You can lose soooo much more just by opening up a small storefront business. I was in the Spa Industry and then the economy tanked in late 2008. I did not renew my lease in 2009. Lost my several hundred thousand dollar build-out. Lost so much more than taking an MLM business seriously. Even if I would have front loaded on a ton of product, I still would have been better off. People spend $750 and get some business cards then do nothing and blame MLM.

Loved the article! I am an independent representative for Jamberry. I noticed you said they are expensive at $15 a sheet. Many people don't know that one sheet is enough to do two manicures, two pedicures, and accent nails. So really $15 is way cheaper than going to the salon. Also if you buy 3 sheets you get one sheet for free so it's an even better deal! I'm totally addicted to them and so is my little girl. They also carry gel and hand/foot care products. Thanks so much for writing such an informative article.
A new project hitting the list, because it will have a huge following no matter what.  We know that crowds of affiliates from other MLMs will tail over to this company. Why? Well this is a BK Boreyko’s business, the same person who had just dealt with the FTC with Vemma.  And there’s no doubt in my mind that he’s planning to make another public attempt.
There is nothing new about people failing; yes, they fail – at lots of things. We could spend months trying to discover why people fail in their marriages, school, jobs, etc. Do I have compassion and feel for them when they can’t make it work. Yes, of course! But I can’t jump into their bodies and make choices and live their life for them. It’s their choice – quit or find a way to keep going. MLM is a business and not everyone will succeed. Will I make money from my HARD EARNED customer base? Yes! Do I feel bad because I make a commission. No! EVERY business owner makes money off their employees – other wise they would not be in business. Do Brick and Morter Business Owners feel bad that they are making millions and they are paying their employees minimum wage??? Of Course Not. That is just the nature of business. So why are you feeling “bad” that you made money? Did you tell your recruits that they could do what you did to make money ? You see, there is a difference in selling a product to a customer and telling a person they can “get rich quick” and do nothing to get there. Those people will fail every time when they listen to such lies. hoilictictouch.com Get Oiled!
MLM restructures the traditional business model — manufacturer to retail shop to customer — such that sales agents working for the manufacturer sell directly to customers, bypassing the retail shop altogether. MLM companies can then convert customers into advocates for their products and possibly even sales agents. Because there is no retail store for the products they sell, MLM agents typically work from their homes, interacting with customers in the community or, more often, over the internet.
Seriluna manufactures spa products for everyday use that contain the safest, most effective ingredients and are meant to restore balance and enhance natural beauty. The starter kits, priced at $99 and $199 contain full-size product samples, brochures, order forms and promotional materials. You’ll also receive a free website for three months, with $10 per month charge after that.
A good MLM will have more than a few products to sell. They will have more than market sector covered (not just nutritional supplements, water filters or essential oils). They will also have other major retailers that they market for. The money those major corporations spend on the annual marketing, will be paid out to the MLM and their distributors for their sales & marketing efforts and results. That is where those companies will get
They also offer a $100, $500, $1000, $3500 products which they offer 100% commissions on.  The great thing about Empower Network is their products are training products.  You can buy their products to build ANY network marketing company out there.  Without Empower Network, I wouldn’t be making the money I am today with the knowledge and skill set to succeed online as well.
Rodan and Fields is committed to bringing minimally 1 new product a year to market. With product and market growth, along with global expansion, it is an unprecedented opportunity that is too good to pass up. I mean, you are basically going to be getting paid to wash your face, talk about it, and help other people get the best skincare of their lives. This is the business that could change everything.
Austria • Argentina • Australia • Barbados • Belgium • Brazil • Bulgaria • Canada • Colombia • Congo • Croatia • Denmark • Egypt • Estonia • France • Germany • Ghana • Greece • Hungary • Iceland • India • Indonesia • Italy • Japan • Kazakhstan • Kenya • Korea • Latvia • Lithuania • Luxembourg • Malaysia • Malta • Mexico • Mongolia • Namibia • Netherlands • New Zealand • Nigeria • Norway • Peru • Philippines • Poland • Portugal • Puerto Rico • Republic of Cyprus • Romania • Rwanda • Saudi Arabia • Singapore • Slovakia • Slovenia • South Africa • South Korea • Spain • Taiwan • Tanzania • Thailand • Trinidad and Tobago • Turkey • Uganda • UK • Ukraine • United Arab Emirates (UAE) • United States (US) • Vietnam • Zambia • Zimbabwe
There is nothing new about people failing; yes, they fail – at lots of things. We could spend months trying to discover why people fail in their marriages, school, jobs, etc. Do I have compassion and feel for them when they can’t make it work. Yes, of course! But I can’t jump into their bodies and make choices and live their life for them. It’s their choice – quit or find a way to keep going. MLM is a business and not everyone will succeed. Will I make money from my HARD EARNED customer base? Yes! Do I feel bad because I make a commission. No! EVERY business owner makes money off their employees – other wise they would not be in business. Do Brick and Morter Business Owners feel bad that they are making millions and they are paying their employees minimum wage??? Of Course Not. That is just the nature of business. So why are you feeling “bad” that you made money? Did you tell your recruits that they could do what you did to make money ? You see, there is a difference in selling a product to a customer and telling a person they can “get rich quick” and do nothing to get there. Those people will fail every time when they listen to such lies. hoilictictouch.com Get Oiled!
In 2003, Thirty One Gifts was founded by Cindy Monroe who felt there was a need for women who didn’t have time to visit gift shops and boutiques. Thirty-One Consultants offer totes, purses, thermal bags, and organizing items at home parties, catalog parties and online. Invest in this MLM for just $99 and receive the Enrollment Kit which includes $400 worth of new products and business supplies – everything you need to successfully start your business.
Peter Castleman, Chairman of Herbalife, will be launching YEVO International on February, 1, 2015. This will be the first business to have dehydrated foods with 43 nutrients we all need in order to live healthy lives. Most of the foods we eat today, whether processed or organic, doesn't gives us the amount of nutrients we need in our bodies. I'm looking for people who will be dedicated to making a difference in people's live as well as their own lives. If you're interested in joining me please do email me at essentialnourishments@gmail.com or essentialnourishments@myyevo.com. Once again my name is Denise Williams. 

Hi. Great post and very informative as I did not know some of these existed. I would like to also add Arbonne to this list. My sister-in-law introduced it to me 3 years ago and it is still relatively unknown (especially since she was the only one I knew of that was talking about it and selling it). After two years of getting samples from here and hosting my own free facial party/girls night, I was hooked. The products are very impressive and all natural/vegan. I recommend everyone at least get a facial to try. We sell skincare, haircare, makeup, and even nutrition, all of which I have tried and highly recommend.


I am with LaBella Baskets..my boutique has a 1,000 gifts including Free Persoanlized for all ages and all occasions. We are offering a signup for just $5 to become a Gift Consultant..all set with a beautiful website and earn commissions and bonuses and so much more. We are an A rated with the BBB! We also are a company who gives back to Single Moms with our Baskets of Smiles program. Look forward to hearing from you. Have a great day!!

They’re sliding, though. Revenue is falling in North America and their sales force is shrinking. Revenue slid 19% in 2013 and 7% in Mexico. Skip ahead to July 2015 and revenue is still spiraling downward, with a 17% drop (5). Analysts blame Avon’s failure to maintain a strong identity for its products as well as the strong dollar. Lesson: Always re-create yourself.
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